; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 9/10.3 Kana/Yakoonu Inflections

RC

global site tag

9/10.3 Kana/Yakoonu Inflections



 

Section 10.3 - كَانَ/يَكُوْنُ Kana/Yakoo-nu Inflections

 

Like other Verbs, kana also has its own inflections which are used to match its gender, speaker/present/absent and single/dual/plural state of its Noun.

 

Following is the table of inflection of كَان kana which is the past tense:

 

Table 65 - كَان Kana inflections

 

 

 

single

dual

 

plural

 

 

 

 

Absent

3rd person

 

Male

كَانَ

 

Kaa-na

 

(He)

Was

 

 

كَانَا

 

Kaa-naa

 

Those

(Two

males)

were

 

كَانُوْا

 

Kaa-noo

 

They

(All

males)

were

 

Female

 

كَانتْ

 

Kaa-nat

 

(She)

was

 

كَانتَا

 

Kaa-nata

 

Those

(Two

females) were

 

كُنَّ

 

Kun-na

 

 

They

(All

females)

were

 

 

Present

2nd person

 

Male

كُنَتَ

 

Kun-ta

 

you

(male)

were

 

كُنَتُمَا

 

Kun-tu-maa

 

You

(Two

males)

were

 

 

كُنْتُمْ

 

Kun-tum

 

 

You

(All

males)

were

 

female

كُنْتِ

 

Kun-ti

 

You

(female)

were

كُنْتُمَا

 

Kun-tu-maa

 

You

(Two

females) were

 

كُنْتُنّ

 

Kun-tun-na

 

You

(All

females)

were

 

Speaker

1st person

 

Male/female

كُنْتُ

 

Kun-tu

 

I was

 

كُنَّا

Kun-naa

 

We (male/female/dual/ plural) were

 

 

Examples of كَان kaa-na for each of these inflections using وَلَدٌ wala-dunand بِنتٌ bin-tun as Nouns of kana for male and female are given below:

 

1) كَانَ وَلدٌ سَعِيدًا

Kaa-na wala-dun sayee-dan

He was a happy boy

 

2) كَانَا وَلَدَانِ سَعِيْدَانِ

Kaa-na wala-daa-nisayee-daani

They were two happy boys

 

3) سَعِيْدِيْنَ كَانُوْا اَوْلَادٌ

Kaa-nu aw-laa-dun Sayee-deena

They all were happy boys

 

4) سَعِيْدَةً كَانَتْ بِنْتٌ

Kaa-nat bin-tunsayee-da-tan

She was a happy girl

 

5) سَعِيْدَتَانِ كَانَتَا بِنْتَانِ

Kaa-na-taa bin-taa-nisayeeda-ta-ni

They were two happy girls

 

6) سُعْدَاءً كُنَّ بَنَاتٌ

Kun-na bana-tun su-daa-an

They were all happy girls

 

7) سَعِيْدًا كُنْتَ وَلَدٌ

Kun-ta-wala-dun sayee-dan

You were a happy boy

 

8) سَعِيْدَانِ كُنْتُمَا وَلَدَانِ

Kun-tuma wala-daa-nisayee-daa-ni

You two were happy boys

 

9) سَعِيْدِيْنَ كُنْتُمْ اَوْلَادٌ

Kun-tum aw-laa-dunsayee-dee-na

You all were happy boys

 

10) سَعِيْدَةً كُنْتِ بِنتٌ

Kun-ti bin-tunsayee-da-tan

You were a happy girl

 

11) سَعِيْدَتَانِ كُنْتُمَا بِنْتَانِ

Kun-tumaa bin-taa-nisayee-da-ta-ni

You two were happy girls

 

12) سُعْدَاءً كُنْتُمْ بَنَاتٌ

Kun-tum banaa-tunsu-daa-an

You all were happy girls

 

13) سَعِيْدَةً كُنتُ وَلَدٌ سَعِيْدًا ، كُنْتُ بِنْتٌ

Kun-tu wala-dunsayee-dan, kun-tu bin-tun sayee-da-tan

I was a happy boy, I was a happy girl

 

14) سُعْدَاءً كُنَّا اَوْلَادٌ سَعِيْدِيْنَ ، كُنَّا بَنَاتٌ

Kun-naa aw-laa-dun sayee-dee-na, kun-naa banaa-tun su-daa-an

We Two or all were happy boys

We Two or all were happy girls,

We were all happy boys

We were all happy girls

 

Imperfect tense فِعْلُ الْمُضَارِعِ fei-ul mudaa-ri-yi is given in the table below. Here, the form يَكُوْنُ Ya-koo-nu does not actually mean "is, " rather it means "will be."

 

Table 66 - يَكُوُنُ Yakunu inflections

 

 

 

Gender

 

 

Single

 

dual

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

يَكُوُنُ

Yakoo-nu

 (He)

Is/will be

 

يَكُوْنَانِ

Yakoo-naa-ni

 (Those

 Two

 males)

 are or will be

 

يَكُوْنُوْنَ

Yakoo-noo-na

They

 (All males)

 are or will be

 

Female

تَكُوُنُ

Ta-koo-nu

 (She)

Is/will be

 

تَكُوْنَانِ

Takoo-naa-ni

Those

 (Two

 females) are or will be

يَكُنَّ

Ya-kun-na

They

 (All

females)

 are or will be

Present

2nd person

Male

تَكُوُنُ

Takoo-nu

you

 (male)

 are or will be or will be

تَكُوْنَانِ

Takoo-naa-ni

You

 (Two

 males)

 are or will be

تَكُوْنُوْنَ

Takoo-noo-na

You

 (All

males)

 are or will be

female

تَكُوْنِيْن

Takoo-nee-na

 

You

 (female)

 are or will be

تَكُوْنَانِ

Takoo-naa-ni

You

 (Two

 females) are or will be

تَكُنَّ

Takun-na

You

 (All

females)

are or will be

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

اَكُوُنُ

Akoo-nu

 (I) am or will be

نَكُوْنُ

Nakoo-nu

we (males, females, duals,

 plurals) are or will be)

 

 

Examples of يَكُوُنُ yakoo-nou for each of these using وَلَدٌ wala-dunand بِنتٌ bin-tunas Nouns of kana for male and female are given below:

 1) يَكُوْنُ وَلدٌ سَعِيدًا

Ya-koo-nuwala-dun sayee-dan

He was a happy boy

 

2) يَكُوْنَانِ وَلَدَانِ سَعِيْدَانِ

Yakoo-naa-ni wala-daa-nisayee-daani

They were two happy boys

 

3) سَعِيْدِيْنَ يَكُوْنُوْنَ اَوْلَادٌ

Yakoo-noo-naaw-laa-dun Sayee-deena

They all were happy boys

 

4) سَعِيْدَةً تَكُوُنُ بِنْتٌ

Takoo-nu bin-tunsayee-da-tan

She was a happy girl

 

5) سَعِيْدَتَانِ تَكُوْنَانِ بِنْتَانِ

Takoo-naa-ni bin-taa-nisayeeda-ta-ni

They were two happy girls

 

6) سُعْدَاءً يَكُنَّ بَنَاتٌ

Ya-kun-na bana-tun su-daa-an

They were all happy girls

 

7) سَعِيْدًا تَكُوُنُ وَلَدٌ

Ta-koo-na wala-dunsayee-dan

You were a happy boy

 

8) سَعِيْدَانِ تَكُوْنَانِ وَلَدَانِ

Ta-koo-naa-ni wala-daa-nisayee-daa-ni

You two were happy boys

 

9) سَعِيْدِيْنَ تَكُوْنُوْنَ اَوْلَادٌ

Takoo-noo-na awlaa-dunsauee-dee-na

You all were happy boys

 

10) سَعِيْدَةً تَكُوْنُ بِنتٌ

Ta-koo-nu bin-tunsayee-da-tan

You were a happy girl

 

11) سَعِيْدَتَانِ تَكُوْنَانِ بِنْتَانِ

Takoo-naa-ni bin-taa-nisayee-da-ta-ni

You two were happy girls

 

12) سُعْدَاءً تَكُنَّ بَنَاتٌ

Ta-kun-na banaa-tunsu-daa-an

You all were happy girls

 

13) سَعِيْدَةً اَكُوْنُ وَلَدٌ سَعِيْدًا ، اَكُوْنُ بِنْتٌ

Akoo-nu wala-dunsayee-dan, kun-tu bin-tun sayee-da-tan

I was a happy boy, I was a happy girl

 

14) سُعْدَاءً نَكُوْنُ اَوْلَادٌ سَعِيْدِيْنَ ، نَكُوْنُ بَنَاتٌ

Na-koo-nu aw-laa-dun sayee-dee-na, kun-naa banaa-tun su-daa-an

We Two or all were happy boys

We Two or all were happy girls,

We were all happy boys

We were all happy girls

 

***

No comments:

Post a Comment