; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 9.0/9.1 - Particles

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9.0/9.1 - Particles



 

Section 9.0 - Particles حُرُوْفٌ (hu-roof-un) are of two kinds:

 

-        First kind is the one which does not change the state of the word that comes after it and is called a non-active Particle.

-        Second kind is a Particle that causes the word/words after it to change its state to nominative (رَفْعٌ raf-un) accusative (نَصْبٌ nas-bun). Genitive (جَرٌّ jar-run) or jussive (جَزْمٌ jaz-mun) / or lightening of e’raab. These are called Active Particles.

 

Section 9.1 - Inactive Particles حُرُوْفٌ غَيْرُ الْعَامِلَةِ Hu-roof-ul ghai-rul aa-mi-la-ti

 

A. Particles of Conjunction/Connectivity حُرُوْفُ الْعَاطِفَةِ (Hu-roof-ul aa-ti-fati)

 

Table 62 – Additive Particles

Additive Particle

Particle meaning

usage

Usage meaning

وَ

 

wa

And

إيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَ إِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِيْنُ

Iyyaa-ka na’bu-du wa iyyaa-ka nas-ta-een

Only You we worship and only you we ask for help

 

فَ

 

Fa

And

 فَمَنيَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ

 

Fa mai-yaa-mal mis-khaa-la dhar-ra-ra-tin khai-rai-yarah

So, whoever does an atoms weight of good will see it,

 

ثٌمَّ

 

Thum-ma

Again

ثُمَّ كَلَّا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ

 

Thum-ma kal-la sau-fa ta-lamoon

Then no! You are going to know

 

حَتّٰى

 

Hat-ta

Until

حَتَّىٰ زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ

 

Hat-ta zur-tum-ul ma-qaa-bir

Until you visit the graveyards

 

أَوْ

 

auw

Or

عُذْرًا أَوْ نُذْرًا

 

Uz-ran aw nuz-ran

As justification or warning

 

إِمَّا

 

Im-ma

Either/ Or/ whether/If

إِمَّا شَاكِرًا وَ إِمَّا كَفُوْرًا

 

Imma shaa-ki-ru wa imma ka-foo-ra

Either he is thankful or he is not thankful

 

أَمْ

 

um

Or

أَمْ لَمْ تُنْذِرُهُمْ

 

Am-lam tun-zi-ru-hum

Or you do not warn them

 

لَا

 

laa

No

لَا أَعْبُدُ

 

Laa aa’bu-du

I do not worship

 

بَلْ

 

bal

But/still

بَلْ أَنتُمْ قَوْمٌ مُّسْرِفُونَ

 

Bal antum khu-mum mus-ri-foon

you are a transgressing people

 

لٰكِنَّ

 

La-kin-na

Nevertheless/ but

وَلَٰكِنْ لَّا يَشْعُرُونَ

 

Wa la-kil-la yash-uroon

but they perceive [it] not.

 

 

B.     Particles of Caution حُرُوْفُ التَّنْبِيْهِ (hu-roof-ut tam-beehi)

Particle of Caution

Particle Meaning

Usage

Usage meaning

اَلَا

 

alaa

Verily/ indeed

أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ

Alaa in-na-hum hum-ul muf-si-doon

Unquestionably, it is they who are the corrupters

أَمَّا

 

Am-ma

Nevertheless/on the other hand/as for

وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ

Wa am-ma man khaf-fat mawa-zee-nu-hu

But as for one whose scales are light

هَا

 

haa

This, Here, thing close at hand or indicated or already named or understood

هَا اَنْتُمْ

Ha antum

Here you are

 

C. Particles of Answer حُرُوْفُ الْاِيْجَابِ (huroof-ul ee-jaabi)

Particles of Answer

Particle meaning

usage

Usage meaning

نَعَمْ

 

Na-am

Yes, indeed

  نَعَمْلِلْكُلِّ

Na-am lil-kul-li

Yes, to all

بَلٰى

 

Ba-laa

Certainly, indeed, surely, truly, verily, yes

بَلٰى وَهْوَالْخَلَّاقُ الْعَلِيْمٌ

Ba-laa wa hual-khal-laaq-qul aleem

Yes indeed! And He (is) the Supreme Creator, the All Knower

أَجَلَ

 

Aja-la

A limited span of time, a period of time, limited time

فَإِنَّ أَجَلَ اللهِ لَأَتٍ

Fa in-na aja-lal-lahi la aa-tin

Then indeed (the) term (of) Allah (is) surely ending

إِيْ

 

ee

Yes

قُلْ إِي وَرَبِّي إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ

Qul ee wa rabbi in-na-hu la-haq-qun

Say, "Yes, by my Lord. Indeed, it is truth

إِنَّ

 

In-na

Indeed

إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ

In-nal in-saa-na la-fi qus-ri

Indeed, mankind is in loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.     Particles of Explanation حُرُوْفُ التَّفْسِيْرِ (huroof-ut taf-seeri)

Particles of Promotion

Particle meaning

usage

pronunciation

Usage meaning

أَيْ

 

aye

Any, that is to say, in other words

بِمُوْجِبٍ أَي حُقُوْقً مِلْكِيَةً

Bi-mu-ji-bi aye hu-qoo-qun mil-ki-ya

Under any proprietary rights

أَنْ

 

un

Because

أَن جَاءَهُ الْأَعْمَىٰ

Un jaa-ahul aa’maa

Because there came to him the blind man,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 E. Particles of Promotion حُرُوْفُ التَّحْضِيْضِ (huroof-ut tah-deedi)

 

Particles of Promotion

Particle meaning

usage

Usage meaning

اَلَّا

 

Al-laa

that not/may not

ألَّا فَعَلْتَ

 Al-laa fa-al-ta

why did you not do it

هَلَّا

 

hull-laa

why did you not

هَلَّا فَعَلْتَ

Hull-laa fa-al-ta

why did you not do it

لَوْلَا

 

Lau-laa

Why not

فَلَوْلَا إِن كُنتُمْ غَيْرَ مَدِيْنِيْنَ

Fa lau-laa in kun-tum ghai-ra ma-dee-nee-na

Then why do you not, if you are not to be recompensed,

 

A Verb is required after these Particles

F.     Particles of Expectation حُرُوْفُ التَّوَقُّعِ (huroof-ut-tawaq-qu-ee)

 Particles of Expectation حُرُوْفُ التَّوَقُّعِis one and it is: قَدْ qad. As in قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن تَزَكَّىٰ(qad af-laha man tazak-ka) meaning He has certainly succeeded who purifies himself.

 

G.    Particles of Interrogation حُرُوْفُ الْاِسْتِفْهَامِ (huroof-ul istef-haami)

 

Particles of Interrogation

Particle meaning

usage

Usage meaning

مَا

 

maa

What/did you

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا هِيَةُۢ

 

Wa maa adraa-ka maa hiya

And what can make you know what that is

اَلْهَمْزَةُ

 

Al-ham-zaa

Are (you)?

قَالُوا أَإِنَّكَ لَأَنتَ يُوسُفُ

 

Qaa-lu a-inna-ka la-anta Yu-sufu

They said, "Are you indeed Joseph?

هَلْ

 

hull

Are (you)

هَلْ أَتَاكَ حَدِيثُ الْجُنُودِ

 

Hull ata-ka hadee-thul ju-nood

Has there reached you the story of the soldiers

 

H.     Particles of Deterrence/Scolding حُرُوْفُ الرِّدَعِ (huroof-ur ridaa)

 

Particles of Deterrence

Particle meaning

usage

Usage meaning

كَلَّا

 

Kal-la

No, Definitely not

كَلَّا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ

 

Kal-la sau-fa ta-lamoon)

No! You are going to know.

 

I.     Particles of Verbal Source الْمَصْدَرِيَةُ اَلْحُرُوْفُ(al-huroof-ul mas-da-ria):

 

These are three: مَا, أَنْ, أَنَّ. Particles مَا and أَنَّ enter the Verb and cause it to give meaning of a Verbal Source.


Particles of Verbal Source

Particle meaning

usage

Usage meaning

مَا

 

maa

that

وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ

 

Wa daa-qat alai-him-ul-arda be-maa ra-hu-bat

the earth became insufficient for them in-spite of its breadth

أَنْ

 

un

that

اَعْجَبْنبْي أَنْ ضُرِبْتَ أَي ضَرَبَكَ

 

Aa’jab-ni un duri-bat aye dara-ba-ka

I was surprised that you were hit or he hit you

أَنَّ

 

anna

Because

بِأَنَّ رَبَّكَ أَوْحَىٰ لَهَا

 

Bi-anna rab-ba-ka ow-haa-lahaa

Because your Lord has commanded it.

 

 

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