; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 8-10 - Imperative imperfect Verb

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8-10 - Imperative imperfect Verb



Section 8.10 – Imperative Verb فِعْلُ الْأَمْرِ feil-ul amr (Command)

 

The imperative in Arabic is used to command a second person, whether singular, dual or plural, male or female.Imperative Verb is considered to be a third category of Verb after past tense and imperfect tense by some Grammarians and others consider it to be a part of variations in imperfect tense.

 

Imperative Verb as the word implies is used for command, ask or request depending upon who is being addressed. For example, if you are addressing a higher authority (say Allah SWT) you would be requesting. If the addressee is a child or a subordinate, you will be commanding/ ordering. For an equal level addressee, you may ask or request.

 

1) Command can only be given in present or future. Therefore, only imperfect Verb will have command Verbs. There is no imperative mode in the past tense.

 

2) It is also obvious from this discussion that a command Verb can only be used for 2nd person (present). Given this, there will be only 6 inflections, two for Nominative رَفْعٌ(raf-un) (male/ female) two for Accusative نَصْبٌ nasb-un (male/female) and two for jussive جَزْمٌ jaz-mun (male/female). From the table 57, the highlighted area inflections only can be made into a command/imperative Verb:

 

Table 57 – Imperfect Tense inflections used in Imperative (bolded only)

 

 

 

single

 

dual

 

plural

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

يَفْعَلُ

6

يَفْعَلَانِ

10

يَفْعَلُوْنَ

Female

2

تَفْعَلُ

7

تَفْعَلَانِ

11

يَفْعَلْنَ

Present

2nd person

Male

3

تَفْعَلُ

8

تَفْعَلَانِ

12

تَفْعَلْوْنَ

female

14

تَفْعَلِينَ

9

تَفْعَلَانِ

13

تَفْعَلْنَ

Speaker

1st person

Male/female

4

أَفْعَلُ

 

5

نَفْعَلُ


3) To create a command Verb, following steps are required which are shown with one example of male Nominative رَفْعٌ(raf-un) imperfect Verb تَفْتَحُ taf-ta-hu which means you are opening or will open:

 

A. First make the imperfect Verb a Hidden version اَخَفْ akhaf discussed before. In our example, تَفْتَحُ taf-ta-hu becomes تَفْتَحْ taf-tah.

 

B. Remove the imperfect Verb sign which is the first alphabet. تَفْتَحْ taf-tah becomes فْتَحْ.

 

C. If it is readable, then we are done and what we have is the command Verb. If not readable because of the second alphabet having a jaz-mun on it (which happens often) then a hamza-tul wasli ا is added.

In our example, since first alphabet has a jaz-mun (sukoon) on It, it becomes فْتَحْ, this Verb is unreadable. A hamzahis added and it becomes افْتَحْ. It is still unreadable because hamzah needs a harakah to make it readable.

 

D. Next we give the hamzah a sign. The rule for this is, if harakah on ع alphabet (remember the die we use is فَعَلَ/يَفْعَلُfa-a-la/yaf-a-lu is a dammah, the hamzah is given a dammah. If it has a fathah or kasrah, a kasrah is given to the hamzah.

 

In our example تَفْتَحُtaf-ta-hu, since ع alphabet is ت which has a fathah on it, we need to give the hamzah a kasrah and the Verb becomes اِفْتَحْ pronounced If-tah which means “you open it” as in the dua we make when entering a masjid:

اللَّهُمَّ اِفْتَحْ لِي أَبْوَابَ رَحْمَتِكَ

"O Allah, open for me your doors of mercy"

Note that since this is a hamzah-tul-wasli, it is kept in writing but not pronounced, so the above dua will be read as Allahum-maftah li ab-waa-ba rah-ma-tik.

 

Following is a completed table of all imperative commands. Similar to the past tense, imperfect tense also has three dies: يَفْعَلُyaf-a-lu, يَفْعِلُyaf-i-luand يَفَعُلُyaf-u-lu.

 

Table 58 يَفْعَلُ (Yaf-a-lu) Imperative Inflections

 

Table 58 يَفْعَلُ (Yaf-a-lu) Imperative Inflections

 

 

Gender

single

dual

plural

Present

Male

اِفْعَلْ

اِفْعَلَا

اِفْعَلْوْا

2nd person

female

اِفْعَلِي

اِفْعَلَا

اِفْعَلْ

 

Table 59 - يَفْعِلُ (Yaf-i-lu) Imperative Inflections

 

 

 

single

dual

plural

Present

Male

اِفْعِلْ

اِفْعِلَا

اِفْعِلْوْا

2nd person

female

اِفْعِلِي

اِفْعِلَا

اِفْعِلْ

 

Table 60 يَفَعُلُ (yaf-u-lu) Imperative Inflections

 

 

Gender

single

dual

plural

Present

Male

اِفْعُلْ

اِفْعُلَا

اِفْعُلْوْا

2nd person

female

اِفْعُلِي

اِفْعُلَا

اِفْعُلْ

 

 

E. Imperative with all Forms اَبْوَابٌ ab-waa-bun - ثُلَاثِيْ thu-lathi and مَزِيْدٌ فِيْهِ mazeed-un fihi

 

Thou-laa-thi

 

1) Form ف:    فَتَحَ/يَفْتَحُ Fa-ta-ha/Yaf-ta-hu

2) Form ض:   ضَرَبَ/يَضْرِبُ Da-ra-ba/Yad-ri-bu

3) Form ن:    نَصَرَ/يَنْصِرُ Na-sa-ra/yan-su-ru

4) Form س:   سَمِعَ/يَسْمَعُ Sa-mi-ya-Yas-ma-u

5) Form ح:   حَسِبَ/يَحْسَبُ Ha-si-ba/Yah-sa-bu

6) Form ك:   كَرُمَ/يَكْرُمُ Ka-ru-ma/Yak-ru-mu

 

Mazeed Fihi

 

7) Form اِفْعَالًا (if-aa-lan): اَنْفَقَ/يُنْفِقُ An-fa-qa/yun-fi-qu

 

8) Form تَفْعِيْلًا (Taf-eel-an): طَهَّرَ/يُطَهِّرُ Tah-hara/yu-tah-hiru

 

9) Form مُفَاعَلَةً (Mufa’alan): نَافَقَ/يُنَافِقُ Naa-fa-qa/Yu-naa-fi-qu

 

10) Form تَفَعُّلً (tafa’u-lan): قَبَّلَ/يُقَبِّلُ Khab-ba-la/yu-qab-bi-lu

11) Form تَفَاعُلً (ta-faa-u-lan): تَدَارَسَ/يَتَدَارَسُ Ta-daa-ra-sa/ya-ta-daa-ra-su

12) Form اِفْتِعَالً (if-ti-aa-lan): اِكْتَسَبَ/يَكْتَسِبُ Ik-ta-sa-ba/yak-ta-si-bu

13) Form اِنْفِعَالً (in-fi-aa-lan): اِنْكَسَرَ/يَنكَسِرُ In-ka-sa-ra/Yan-ka-si-ru

14) Form اِسْتِفْعَالً (is-tif-aa-lan): اِسْتَغْفَرَ/يَسْتَغْفِرُ Is-tagh-fi-ra/Yas-tagh-fi-ru

 

Table 61 – Imperatives Examples for all 14 forms اَبْوَابٌ

 

Form

Root alphabets

Past Tense

Imperfect Tense

Imperative Tense and meaning (command)

ف

 

Faa

ف ت ح

فَتَحَ

 

Fa-ta-ha

يَفْتَحُ

 

Yaf-ta-hu

اِفْتَحْ

 

If-tah

You open

ض

 

Daad

ض ر ب

ضَرَبَ

 

Da-ra-ba

يَضْرِبُ

 

Yad-ri-bu

اِضْرِبْ

 

Id-rib

You hit

ن

 

Noon

ن ص ر

نَصَرَ

 

Na-sa-ra

يَنْصُرُ

 

Yan-su-ru

اُنْصُرْ

 

Un-sur

You help

س

 

seen

س م ع

سَمِعَ

 

Sa-mi-aa

يسْمَعُ

 

Yas-ma-u

اِسمَعْ

 

Is-ma

You listen

ح

 

haa

ح س ب

حَسِبَ

 

Ha-si-ba

يَحسَبُ

 

Yah-sa-bu

اِحسَبْ

 

Ih-sab

You reckon

ك

 

kaaf

ك ر م

كَرُمَ

 

Ka-ru-ma

يَكْرُمُ

 

Yak-ru-mu

اُكْرُمْ

 

Uk-rum

You be generous

اِفْعَالًا

 

If-aa-lan

ن ز ل

اَنْزَلَ

 

An-za-la

يُنْزِلُ

 

Yun-zi-lu

اُنْزِلْ

 

Un-zil

You Send down

تَفْعِيْلًا

 

Taf-ee-lan

ن ز ل

نَزَّلَ

 

Naz-za-la

يُنَزِّلُ

 

Yu-naz-zi-lu

نَزَّلْ

 

Naz-zal

You bring down!

مُفَاعَلَةً

 

Mu-faa-ala-tan

ن ف ق

نَافَقَ

 

Naa-fa-qa

يُنَافِقُ

 

Yu-naa-fi-qu

نَافِقْ

 

Naa-fiq

You become hypocrite!

تَفَعُّلً

 

Tafa’u-lan

ع ل م

تَعَلَّمَ

 

Ta-al-la-ma

يَتَعَلَّمَ

 

Ya-ta-alla-ma

تَعَلَّمْ

 

Ta-allam

You learn!

تَفَاعُلً

 

Ta-faa-u-lan

د ر س

تَدَارَسَ

 

Ta-daa-ra-sa

يَتَدَارسُ

 

Ya-ta-daa-ra-sa

تَدَارَسْ

 

Tada-ras

You study together

اِفْتِعَالً

 

If-ti-aa-lan

ك س ب

اِكْتَسَبَ

 

Ik-ta-sa-ba

يَكْتَسِبُ

 

Yak-ta-si-bu

اِكْتَسِبْ

 

Ik-ta-sib

You earn!

اِنْفِعَالً

 

In-fi-aa-lan

ك س ر

اِنْكَسَرَ

 

In-ka-sa-ra

يَنكَسِرُ

 

Yan-ka-si-ru

اِنْكَسِرْ

 

In-ka-sir

You break!

اِسْتِفْعَالً

 

Is-tif-aa-lan

غ ف ر

اِسْتَغْفَرَ

 

Is-tagh-fa-ra

يَسْتَغْفِرُ

 

Yas-tagh-fi-ru

اِسْتَغْفِرْ

 

Is-tagh-fir

You ask for forgiveness

 

 

 

***

 


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