; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 9/912.10 - Form X. اِسْتِفْعَالًا Istef-‘alan

RC

global site tag

9/912.10 - Form X. اِسْتِفْعَالًا Istef-‘alan



 

Section 12.10 - Form X. اِسْتِفْعَالًا Istef-‘alan

 

Form VIII is called اِسْتِفْعَالًا(is-tef-‘aa-lan).  Past tense of this form is اِسْتَفْعَلَ (is-taf-‘ala) and imperfect tense is يَسْتَفْعِلُ(yas-taf-‘ilu) and its source (Masdar) is اِسْتِفْعَالًا. The benefit of this form is that it also changes the meaning of the Verb from normal action to that of an action with requesting/asking something for yourself. For example, غَفَرَ gha-fa-ra to اِسْتَغْفَرَ is-tagh-fa-ra. غَفَرَ gha-fa-ra means to forgive. When changed to اِسْتَغْفَرَ is-tagh-fa-ra, it means to ask for forgiveness.

The inflections for this are shown in the table below:

 

Table 90 – Form X Past tense اِسْتَفْعَلَ(is-taf-ala) Inflections

 

 

 

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

اِسْتَفْعَلَ

 

Is-taf-

‘a-la

2

اِسْتَفْعَلَا

 

Is-ta’-

alaa

3

اِسْتَفْعَلُوْا

 

Is-taf-

‘aloo

Female

4

اِسْتَفْعَلَتْ

 

Is-taf-

‘alat

5

اِسْتَفْعَلَتَا

 

Is-taf-

‘al-taa

 

6

اِسْتَفْعَلْنَ

 

Is-taf-

‘al-na

Present

2nd person

Male

7

اِسْتَفْعَلْتَ

 

Is-taf-

‘al-ta

 

8

اِسْتَفْعَلْتُمَا

 

Is-taf-

‘al-tu-maa

 

9

اِسْتَفْعَلْتُمْ

Is-taf-

‘al-tum

female

10

اِسْتَفْعَلْتِ

 

Is-taf-

‘al-ti

 

11

اِسْتَفْعَلْتُمَا

 

Is-taf-

‘al-tu-maa

 

12

اِسْتَفْعَلْتُنَّ

 

Is-taf-‘al-

Tun-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

13

اِسْتَفْعَلْتُ

 

Is-ta-

‘al-tu

14

اِسْتَفْعَلْنَا

 

Is-taf-‘al-naa

 

Table 91 Form X Imperfect Tense يَسْتَفْعِلُ (yas-taf-ee-lu) Inflections

 

 

Gender

 

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd

person

Male

1

يَسْتَفْعِلُ

 

Yas-taf-

‘i-lu

6

يَسْتَفْعِلُانِ

 

Yas-taf-

‘i-laa-ni

10

يَسْتَفْعِلُوْنَ

 

Yas-taf-

‘i-loo-na

Female

2

تَسْتَفْعِلُ

 

tas-taf-

‘i-lu

7

تَسْتَفْعِلُانِ

 

tas-taf-

‘i-laa-ni

11

يَسْتَفْعِلُنَ

 

Yas-taf-

‘il-na

Present

2nd

person

Male

3

تَسْتَفْعِلُ

 

tas-taf-

‘i-lu

8

تَسْتَفْعِلُانِ

 

tas-taf-

‘i-laa-ni

12

تَسْتَفْعِلْوْنَ

 

tas-taf-

‘i-loo-na

female

14

تَسْتَفْعِلُينَ

 

Tas-taf-

‘i-lee-na

9

تَسْتَفْعِلُانِ

 

tas-taf-

‘i-laa-ni

13

تَسْتَفْعِلُنَ

 

tas-taf-

‘il-na

Speaker

1st

person

Male/female

4

اَسْتَفْعِلُ

 

as-taf-

‘i-lu

5

نَسْتَفْعِلُ

 

Nas-taf-’i-lu

 

Table 92 - Form X اِسْتَفْعَلَ/ يَسْتَفْعِلُ is-taf-a-la/yas-taf-i-lu Examples

 

Qur’anic Example

four alphabet form VII past/imperfect/ Infinitive and Infinitive meaning

three alphabet

Form I past/imperfect/ Infinitive and Infinitive meaning

three alphabet root with

form

Yaseen - Verse 67

 

فَمَا اسْتَطَاعُوا مُضِيًّا وَلَا يَرْجِعُونَ

 

So, they would not be able to proceed, nor could they return

 

 

اِسْتَطَاعَ/ يَسْتَطِيْعُ/ اِسْتِطَاعَةً

 

Is-ti-ta-aa/yas-ta-tee-u/is-ti-taa-atan

 

to be able to / can / capable of

طَاعَ/ يَطُوْعُ/ طَاعَةً

 

Taa-a/ya-too-u/taa-atan

 

to obey/comply/ conform/be obedient (willingly)

ط و ع

 (ن)

An-Nisaa - Verse 106

 

وَاسْتَغْفِرِ اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمً

 

And seek forgiveness of Allah. Indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

 

اِسْتَغْفَرَ/ يَسْتَغْفِرُ/ اِسْتِغْفَارًا

 

Is-tagh-fa-ra/yas-tagh-fi-ru/is-tigh-faa-ran

 

to seek / ask for forgiveness / pray for pardon

غَفَرَ/ يَغْفِرُ/ مَغْفِرَةً، غُفْرَانًا

 

Gha-fa-ra/ygh-fi-ru/magh-fi-ra-ta, guf-ra-nan

 

to forgive / pardon / cover / conceal / rectify

غ ف ر

 (ض)

Al-Baqara - Verse 34

 

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

 

And [mention] when We said to the angels, "Prostrate before Adam"; so they prostrated, except for Iblees. He refused and was arrogant and became of the disbelievers.

اِسْتَكْبَرَ/ يَسْتَكْبِرُ/ اِسْتِكْبَارًا

 

 

Is-tak-ba-ra/yas-tak-bi-ru/ist-tik-baa-ran

 

to try to show arrogance/seek own greatness /proud /boastful

كَبُرَ/ يَكْبُرُ/ كِبْرًا

 

Ka-bu-ra/yak—bu-ru/kib-ran

 

to be big, great / grow / be a big deal / be older

ك ب ر

 (ك،ن)

Ash-Shura - Verse 38

 

وَالَّذِينَ اسْتَجَابُوا لِرَبِّهِمْ

 

And those who have responded to their lord

اِسْتَجَابَ/ يَسْتَجِيْبُ/ اِسْتِجَابَةً

 

Is-ti-jaa-ba/yas-ta-jee-bu/is-tejaa-ba-tan

 

to try to respond/comply with/accede to/listen to

جَابَ/ يَجُوْبُ/ جَوْبًا

 

Jaa-ba/ya-joo-bu/jow-ban

 

to travel / explore / pierce / bore

ج و ب

 (ن)

Al-Baqara - Verse 15

 

اللَّهُ يَسْتَهْزِئُ بِهِمْ

 

[But] Allah mocks them

اِسْتَهْزِئَ/ يَسْتَهْزِئُ/ اِسْتِهْزَاءً

 

Is-tah-zee-a/yas-tah-zee-yu/is-teh-zaa-an

 

to mock / ridicule / scoff / make fun

هَزِئَ/ يَهْزَأ/ هُزُؤًا

 

Ha-zi-ya/yah-zaa/huzoo-wan

 

to mock / make fun / string along

ه ز ء

 (س)

As-Saaffaat - Verse 176

أَفَبِعَذَابِنَا يَسْتَعْجِلُونَ

Then for Our punishment are they impatient?

 

اِسْتَعْجَلَ/ يَسْتَعْجِلُ/ اِسْتِعْجَالًا

 

Is-ta-ja-la/yas-ta-ji-lu/iste-jaa-lan

 

to be busy / rush / hasten / wish to hasten

عَجِلَ/ يَعْجَلُ/ عُجْلَةً

 

a-jila/ya-ja-lu/uj-la-tan

 

to be in a hurry/speed /hasten /not wait patiently

ع ج ل

 (س)

At-Tawba - Verse 44

 

لَا يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ

 

Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day would not ask permission of you

اِسْتَـْٔذَنَ/ يَسْتَأْذِنُ/ اِسْتِئْذَانًا

 

Is-te-za-na/yas-taa-zi-nu/is-te-zaa-nan

 

to seek permission

أَذِنَ/ يَأْذَنُ/ إِذْنًا

 

e-za-na/ya-za-nu/ez-nan

 

to permit/allow/ learn

ء ذ ن

 (س)

At-Takwir - Verse 28

لِمَن شَاءَ مِنكُمْ أَن يَسْتَقِيمَ

 

For whoever wills among you to take a right course

اِسْتَقَامَ/ يَسْتْقِيْمُ/ اِسْتِقَامَةً

 

Is-te-qaa-ma/yas-ta-qee-mu/is-te-qaa-ma-tan

 

to straighten up/stand upright/become straight/be right, proper/pursue a correct course of action and not deviate

قَامَ/ يَقُوْمُ/ قِيْامًا

 

 

Qaa-ma/ya-qq-mu/qa-yaa-man

 

to get up/ stand up/exist /watch over / be in charge

ق و م

 (ن)

Al-Baqara - Verse 26

 

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلًا مَّا بَعُوضَةً

 

Indeed, Allah is not shy to present an example - that of a mosquito

اِسْتَحِىْ/ يَسْتَحيِي/ اِسْتِحْيَاءً

 

Is-ta-hee/yas-ta-hee/is-teh-yaa-an

 

to feel shy/ ashamed of/ embarrassed/ let live/ keep alive

حَيَّ / يَحيٰي/ حَيْاةً

 

Haiy-ya/yah-ya/ha-yaa-tan

 

to live / be alive

ح ي ي

 (س)

Saba - Verse 33

 

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا لِلَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا

 

Those who were oppressed will say to those who were arrogant

اِسْتَضْعَفَ/ يَسْتَضْعِفُ/اِسْتِضْعَافًا

 

Is-tad-a-faa/yas-tad-i-fu/is-ted-aa-fan

 

to incapacitate /make helpless/ persecute /oppress/deem weak

ضَعُفَ/ يَضْعُفُ/ ضُعْفًا

 

Da-u-fa/yad-u-fu/du-fan

 

to be weak / feeble / frail / deficient

ض ع ف (ك)

Aal-Imran - Verse 171 يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِنِعْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَفَضْلٍ

 

They receive good tidings of favor from Allah and bounty

اِسْتَبْشَرَ/ يَسْتَبْشِرُ/ اِسْتِبْشَارًا

 

Is-tab-sha-ra/yas-tab-shi-ru/is-teb-shaa-ran

 

to rejoice / be delighted / be congratulated

بَشَرَ/ يَبْشِرُ/ بُشْرًا

 

Ba-sha-ra/yab-shi-ru/bush-ran

 

to rejoice/be delighted/ sprout/be manifest/peel

ب ش ر

 (ض،س)

 

 

 Summary of Thulaathi and Mazeed Fih



Below is a list of all the triliteral and augmented root forms with past and imperfect tenses:

 

Table 93ثُلَاثِيْ Thoulaa-thi and مَزِيْدٌ فِيْهِ  Mazeed Fih أَوْزَانٌ Auz-aan-un Summary

 

Zero additional alphabets

Identifying alphabet (form) for trilateral root

Past tense

Imperfect tense

Example - Past Tense

Example - Imperfect Tense

ف

فَعَلَ

 

Fa-a-la

يَفْعَلُ

 

Yaf-a-lu

فَتَحَ

 

Fa-ta-ha

 

 (he opened)

يَفْتَحُ

 

Yaf-ta-hu

 

 (he opens/will open)

ض

فَعَلَ

 

Fa-a-la

يَفْعِلُ

Yaf-ee-lu

ضَرَبَ

 

Za-ra-ba

 

 (he hit)

يَضْرِبُ

 

Yaz-ri-bu

 

 (he hits/will hit)

ن

فَعَلَ

 

Fa-a-la

يَفْعُلُ

 

Yaf-u-lu

نَصَرَ

 

Na-sa-ra

 

 (he helped)

يَنْصُرُ

 

Yan-su-ru

 

 (he helps/will help)

س

فَعِلَ

 

Fa-i-la

يَفْعَلُ

 

Yaf-i-lu

سَمِعَ

 

Sa-me-aa

 

 (he heard)

يَسْمَعُ

 

Yas-ma-u

 (he hears/will hear)

ح

فَعِلَ

 

Fa-e-la

يَفْعِلُ

 

Yaf-i-lu

حَسِبَ

 

Ha-si-ba

 

 (he presumed)

يَحْسِبُ

Yah-si-bu

 

 (he presumes/will presume)

ك

فَعُلَ

 

Fa-o-la

يَفْعُلُ

 

Yaf-u-lu

كَرُمَ

 

Ka-ru-ma

 

 (he admired)

 

يَكْرُمُ

Yak-ru-mu

 

 (he admires/will admire)

 

1 additional alphabet

 

Masdar

Past Tense

Imperfect Tense

Example - Past Tense

Example – Imperfect Tense

اِفْعَالًا

 

If-aal-an

أَفْعَلَ

 

Af-a-la

 

 (additional alphabet hamzah اَ)

يُفْعِلُ

 

Yuf-ee-lu

اَنْزَلَ

 

An-za-la

 

 (he sent down gradually)

يُنْزِلُ

 

Yun-zee-lu

 

 (he sends down/will send down gradually)

تَفْعِيْلًا

 

Taf-eel-an

فَعَّلَ

 

Fa-a-ala

 

 (additional alphabet ain ع)

يُفَعِّلُ

 

Yufaa-ee-lu

نَزَّلَ

 

Naz-zala

 

 (he sent down)

 

يُنَزِّلُ

 

Yu-naz-zilu

 

 (he sent down/will send down)

مُفَاعَلًا

 

Mu-faa-a-lan

فَاعَلَ

 

Faa-‘a-la

 

 (additional alphabet hamzah ا)

يُفَاعِلُ

 

Yu-faa-‘i-lu

نَافَقَ

 

Naa-fa-qa

 

 (he became hypocrite)

 

يُنَافِقُ

 

Yu-na-fi-qu

 

He becomes /will become hypocrite)

 

2 additional alphabets

 

تَفَعُّلًا

 

Ta-fa-a-ul-an

تَفَعَّلَ

 

Tafa’-a-ala

 

 (additional alphabets ت and ع)

يَتَفَعَّلُ

 

Yata-fa’-a-alu

تَعَلَّمَ

 

Ta-al-lama

 

 (he learned)

يَتَعَلَّمُ

 

Ya-ta-al-lama

 

 (he is/will learn)

تَفَاعُلاً

 

Ta-faa-ul-an

تَفَاعَلَ

 

Ta-faa-‘ala

 

 (additional alphabets taa ت and hamzah اْ)

يَتَفَاعَلُ

 

Ya-ta-faa-‘alu

تَدَارَسَ

 

Ta-daa-ra-sa

 

 (he taught)

يَتَدَارَسُ

 

Ya-ta-daa-ra-sa

 

 (he teaches/will teach)

اِفْتِعَالًا

 

If-tee-aalan

اِفْتَعَلَ

 

If-ta-‘a-la

 

 (additional alphabets hamzah اِ and noon ن)

يَفْتَعِلُ

 

Yaf-ta-‘ee-lu

اِكْتَسَبَ

 

Ik-ta-sa-ba

 

 (he earned)

يَكْتَسِبُ

 

Yak-ta-see-bu

 

 (he earns/will earn)

اِنْفِعَالًا

 

In-fee-aal-an

اِنْفَعَلَ

 

In-fa-‘ala

 (additional alphabets hamzah اِ and noon ن)

يَنْفَعِلُ

 

Yan-fa-‘ilu

اِنْكَسَرَ

 

In-ka-sa-ra

 

 (he broke)

 

يَنْكَسِرُ

 

Yan-ka-see-ru

 

 (he breaks/will break)

 

3 additional alphabets

 

اِسْتِفْعَالًا

 

Is-tef-aal-an

اِسْتَفْعَلَ

 

Is-taf-‘ala

 

Additional alphabets hamzah اِ, seen س, and taa ت)

يَسْتَفْعِلُ

 

Yas-taf-‘i-lu

اِسْتَغْفَرَ

 

Is-tagh-fa-ra

 

 (he asked for forgiveness)

يَسْتَغْفِرُ

 

Yas-tagh-fee-ru

 

 (he is asking/will ask for forgiveness)

 

 

 

***


No comments:

Post a Comment