; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 9/13.5 - Derivative 5 Superlative/Comparative Noun اِسْمُ التَّفْضِيْلِ

RC

global site tag

9/13.5 - Derivative 5 Superlative/Comparative Noun اِسْمُ التَّفْضِيْلِ



Section 13.5 - Derivative 5 Superlative/Comparative Noun اِسْمُ التَّفْضِيْلِ ismut-taf-deeli

 

This Noun is divided into two forms. One is Comparative التًّفْضِيْلُ الْبَعْضُ at-taf-deel-ul ba-adu and the other is Superlative التًّفْضِيْلُ الْكُلُّ at-taf-deel-ulkul-lu.

 

1.     Comparative Nounsاَلتًّفْضِيْلُ الْبَعْضُ at-taf-deel-ul ba-adu are used generally for comparing the attributes of two described Nouns. For example, Zaid is faster than Amr or Hamid is smarter than Mahmoud.

Comparative Noun in Arabic for masculine gender has the scale of af-alou أَفعَلُ af-‘alu and for the feminine gender is fou-laa فُعْلٰى fu’-laa.

 

Rule for Using Comparative Noun is that the preposition مِنْ is always used.

-        For example, the phrase حَامِدٌ أَعْلَمُ مِنْ زَيْدٍ Haa-mi-dun aa’la-mumin Zaid-in means Hamid knows more than Zaid.

-        Another example with the phrase from Qur’an, surah Al-An'aam - Verse 21:

-         

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا

 

Wa man az-la-ma mim-manif-ta-ra alal-lahi kazi-ban

 

Here مِمَّنِ mim-man is مِنْ+مَنْ, مِنْminmeaning from and مَنْ munmeaning who أَظْلَمُ az-la-mu(more unjust) is the comparative Noun on the scale أَفعَلُ af-a-lu. The meaning here is “And who is more unjust than one who invents about Allah a lie or denies His verses?”

 

Comparative Noun is always predicate اَلْخَبَرُ al-kha-ba-ru and therefore is inflexible نَكِرةٌ na-ki-ra-tun and is always a single since comparison is always against a single entity (one or one group).

 

The table below shows the inflections in all three states. Only Sound plurals اَلْجمْعُ السَّالِمُ al-jam-us saa-li-mu are given. The scales for broken plurals الْجمْعُ الْمُكَسّرُ al jam-ul-mu-kas-sa-ru are not mentioned here and can be studied in more advanced books.

 

Nominative رَفْعٌ raf-un

 

Sound plural

Dual

Single

 

 

أَفعَلُوْنَ

 

 Af-‘a-loona

أَفعَلَانِ

 

 Af-‘a-laa-ni

أَفعَلُ

 

 Af-‘a-lu

Masculine

فُعَلَيَاتٌ

 

Fu’-a-la-yaa-tun

فُعْلَيَانِ

 

Fu’-la-yaa-ni

فُعْلٰى

 

Fu’-laa

Feminine

 

Accusative نَصْبٌnas-bun

 

Sound plural

Dual

Single

 

 

أَفعَلِيْنَ

 

Af-‘alee-na

أَفعَلَيْنِ

 

Af-‘alai-nee

 

 

أَفعَلَ

 

 

Af-‘ala

 

 

Masculine

فُعَلَيَاتٍ

 

Fu-‘ala-yaa-tin

 

فُعْلَيَيْنِ

 

Fu’-la-yay-ni

 

فُعْلٰى

 

Fu’-laa

Feminine

 

Genitive جَرٌّ jar-run

 

Sound plural

Dual

Single

 

 

أَفعَلِيْنَ

 

 Af-‘alee-na

أَفعَلَيْنِ

 

 Af-‘ala-ni

أَفعَلَ

 

 

Af-‘ala

Masculine

فُعَلَيَاتٍ

 

Fu-‘a-la-yaa-tin

فُعْلَيَيْنِ

 

Fu’-la-yay-ni

فُعْلٰى

 

Fu’-laa

Feminine

 

 

2.     The Superlative التًّفْضِيْلُ الْكُلُّ at-taf-dee-lul kul-lu is the form of an adjective indicating the greatest degree of the quality that the adjective describes. Best is the superlative form of good; fastestis the superlative form of fast and most charming is the superlative form of charming. We also know this as a comparative degree.

 

Masculine gender has the scale of af-alu أَفعَلُ and for the feminine gender is فُعْلٰى fu-laa. These are the same those used in comparative Noun التًّفْضِيْلُ الْبَعْضُ at-taf-dee-lul-baa-du.

 

The Superlative is made in two ways:

 

1.     Make the Noun a definite by ال and make a descriptive compound as in الرَّجْلُ الْاَفْضَلُ ar-raju-lul af-da-lu meaning the man who is the best.

2.     Make a possessive compound and make the possessed part as the one over which the tasf-deelis to be shown as in اَعْلَمُ النَّاسِaala-munnaa-si meaning the most learned among all people.

3.     Just like English language, words like most are also used to create the superlative. Commonly used ones are اَشَدُّ ashad-du, اَكْثَرُ ak-tha-ru, and اَعْظَمُ aa’za-mu, all meaning most. As in,

اَشَدُّ سَوَادًا ashad-du saw-daa-anmeaning most black, اَكْثَرُ اِخْتِيَارًا ak-tha-ru ikh-tia-ranmeaning having most power.

 

 

 

***


 

No comments:

Post a Comment