; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 9/12.9 - Form VIII. اِنْفِعَالًا in-fi-'aa-lan

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9/12.9 - Form VIII. اِنْفِعَالًا in-fi-'aa-lan



Section 12.9 - Form VIII. اِنْفِعَالًا in-fi-aa-lan

 

Form VII is called اِنْفِعَالًا(in-fi-‘aal-an).  Past tense of this form is اِنْفَعَلَ (in-fi-‘a-la) and imperfect tense is يَنْفَعِلُ (yan-fa-‘i-lu) and its source (Masdar) is اِنْفِعَالًا in-fi-‘aa-lan. The benefit of this form is that it also changes the meaning of the Verb from transitive Verb فِعلُ الْمُتَعَدِّىْ(feil-ul mu-ta-ad-di) to a فِعْلُ اللَّاَزِمِ feil-ul laazim (intransitive). For example, كَسَرَ ka-sa-ra to اِنْكَسَرَ in-ka-sa-ra. كَسَرَ ka-sa-ra means to break. When changed to اِنْكَسَرَ in-ka-sa-ra, it means to be broken.

The inflections for this are shown in the table below:

 

Table 87 – Form VIII Past tense اِنْفَعَلَ (in-fa’-a-la) Inflections

 

 

 

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

اِنْفَعَلَ

 

In-fa’-

la

2

اِنْفَعَلَا

 

In-fa’-

ala

3

اِنْفَعَلُوْا

 

In-fa’-

aloo

Female

4

اِنْفَعَلَتْ

 

In-fa’-

lat

5

اِنْفَعَلَتَا

 

In-fa’-

al-ta

6

اِنْفَعَلْنَ

 

In-fa’-

al-na

Present

2nd person

Male

7

اِنْفَعَلْتَ

 

In-fa’-

al-ta

8

اِنْفَعَلْتُمَا

 

In-fa’-

al-tu-

maa

9

اِنْفَعَلْتُمْ

 

In-fa’-

al-tum

female

10

اِنْفَعَلْتِ

 

In-fa’-

al-ti

11

اِنْفَعَلْتُمَا

 

In-fa’-

al-tu-

maa

12

اِنْفَعَلْتُنَّ

 

In-fa’-al-

Tun-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

13

اِنْفَعَلْتُ

 

In-fa’-

al-tu

14

اِنْفَعَلْنَا

 

In-fa’-al-naa

 










 

Table 88 Form VIII Imperfect Tense يَنْفَعِلُ (yan-fa’-ee-lu) Inflections

 

 

Gender

 

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

يَنْفَعِلُ

 

Yan-fa-

‘i-lu

6

يَنْفَعِلُانِ

 

yan-fa-

‘i-laa-ni

10

يَنْفَعِلُوْنَ

 

Yan-fa-

‘i-loo-na

Female

2

تَنْفَعِلُ

 

Tan-fa-

‘i-lu

7

تَنْفَعِلُانِ

 

Tan-fa-

‘i-laa-ni

11

يَنْفَعِلُنَ

 

Yan-fa-

‘il-na

Present

2nd person

Male

3

تَنْفَعِلُ

 

Tan-fa-

‘i-lu

8

تَنْفَعِلُانِ

 

Tan-fa-

‘i-laa-ni

12

تَنْفَعِلْوْنَ

 

Tan-fa-

-‘i-loo-na

female

14

تَنْفَعِلُينَ

 

Tan-fa-

‘i-lee-na

9

تَنْفَعِلُانِ

 

Tan-fa-

‘i-laa-ni

 

13

تَنْفَعِلُنَ

 

Tan-fa-

‘il-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

4

اَنْفَعِلُ

 

An-fa-

‘i-lu

 

5

نَنْفَعِلُ

 

Nan-fa-‘ilu

 

 

 

Table 89 - Form VIII اِنْفَعَلَ/ يَنْفَعِلُ/اِنْفِعَالًا in-fa-‘a-la/yan-fa-‘i-lu/in-fi-‘aa-lan Examples

 

Qur’anic Example

four alphabet form VII past/imperfect/Infinitive and Infinitive meaning

three alphabet

Form I past/ imperfect/ Infinitive and Infinitive meaning

three alphabet root with

form

Al-Inshiqaaq - Verse 9

 

وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُورًا

 

And return to his people in happiness

 

اِنْقَلَبَ/ يَنْقَلِبُ/ اِنْقِلَابًا

 

In-qa-la-ba/yan-qa-li-bu/in-qi-laa-ban

 

to be overturned / upset / turned around

 

قَلَبَ/ يَقْلِبُ/ قَلْبًا, قُلُوْبًا

 

Qa-la-ba/yaq-li-bu/qal-ban, qu-loo-ban

 

to turn around / overthrow / reverse / overturn

ق ل ب

 (ض)

Al-Kahf - Verse 71

 

فَانطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا رَكِبَا فِي السَّفِينَةِ خَرَقَهَا ۖ

 

So, they set out, until when they had embarked on the ship, al-Khidr tore it open

اِنْطَلَقَ/ يَنْطَلِقُ/ اِنْطِلَاقًا

 

in-ta-la-qa/yan-ta-li-qu/in-ti-laa-qan

 

to depart/take off/set free/discharge/ move forward (on track)

طَلُقَ/ يَطْلُقُ/ طَلَاقًا

 

Ta-la-qa/yat-lu-qu/ta-laa-qan

 

to be cheerful / happy / be divorced

 

 

ط ل ق

 (ك،ن)

---

اِنْكَسَرَ/ يَنْكَسِرُ/ اِنْكِسَارًا

 

In-ka-sa-ra/yan-ka-si-ru/in-ki-saa-ran

 

to be broken

 

 

كَسَرَ/ يَكْسِرُ/كَسْرًا

 

Ka-sa-ra/yak-si-ru/kas-ran

 

to break

ك س ر

 (ض)

Ash-Shams - Verse 12

 

إِذِ انبَعَثَ أَشْقَاهَا

 

When the most wretched of them was sent forth.

اِنْبَعَثَ/ يَنْبَعِثُ/ اِنْبِعَاثًا

 

Im-ba-‘a-tha/yam-ba’-i-thu/im-bi-‘aa-than

 

to be delegated / dispatched / sent / provoked

بَعَثَ/ يَبْعَثُ/ بَعْثًا ، بِعْثَةً

 

Ba-‘a-tha/yab-‘a-thu/ba’-than, bi’-tha-tan

 

to raise/raise up/resurrect/revive/ appoint/ send

ب ع ث

 (ف)

At-Takwir - Verse 2

وَإِذَا النُّجُومُ انكَدَرَتْ

And when the stars fall, dispersing

 

اِنْكَدَرَ/ يَنْكَدِرُ/ اِنْكِدَارًا

 

In-ka-da-ra/yan-ka-di-ru/in-ki-daa-ran

 

to become dispersed / scattered / dull

كَدُرَ/ يَكْدُرُ/ كَدْرًا ، كَدَارَةًا

 

 

Ka-du-ra/yaj-du-ru/ka-daa-ra-tan

 

to be turbid / dreary / faded / polluted

ك د ر

 (ك،س)

Al-Baqara - Verse 60

 

فَقُلْنَا اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ ۖ فَانفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا

 

So, We said, "Strike with your staff the stone." And there gushed forth from it twelve springs

اِنفَجَرَ/ يَنْفَجِرُ/ اِنفِجَارًا

 

In-faja-ra/yan-fa-ji-ru/in-fi-jaa-ran

 

to explode / burst

فَجَرَ/ يَفْجُرُ/ فُجُوْرًا

 

Fa-ja-ra/yaf-ju-ru/fu-joo-ran

 

to open/cut/

cleve/break up/tear open/act immorally/deviate

ف ج ر

 (ن)

Al-Infitaar - Verse 1

إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انفَطَرَتْ

 

When the sky breaks apart

 

اِنْفَطَرَ/ ينفطِر/ اِنفِطَارًا

 

In-fa-ta-ra/yan-fa-ti-ru/in-fi-taa-ran

 

to split up/break into pieces/rent asunder/cleave

فَطَرَ/ يَفْطُرُ/ فُطُوْرًا

 

Fa-ta-ra/yaf-tu-ru/fu-too-ran

 

to create/ originate/ initiate//split/cleave/tear (lengthwise)

ف ط ر

 (ن)

Al-Inshiqaaq - Verse 1

إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انشَقَّتْ

When the sky has split [open]

 

اِنشَقَّ/ يَنْشَقُّ/ اِنشِقَاقًا

 

In-shq-qa/yan-shaq-qu/in-shi-qaa-qan

 

to be split apart / cracked / cleft asunder

شَقَّ/ يَشُقُّ/ شَقًّا ، مُشَقَّةً

 

Shaq-qa/ya-shuq-qu/shaq-qan, mu-shaq-qa-tan

 

to split apart/crack/cleave/tear/be hard/burdensome

ش ق ق

 (ن)

Yaseen - Verse 69

 

وَمَا عَلَّمْنَاهُ الشِّعْرَ وَمَا يَنبَغِي لَهُ

 

And We did not give him (Prophet Muhammad) knowledge of poetry, nor is it befitting for him

اِنْبَغٰى/ يَنْبَغِيْ/ اِنبَغَاءً

 

Im-ba-ghaa/yam-ba-ghee/im-baghaa-an

 

 

to be appropriate / suitable / necessary

بَغَىَ/ يبَغِيْ/ بَغَيًا ، بُغَاءً

 

Ba-gha/yab-ghi/bag-yan, bu-ghaa-an

 

to seek/desire to attain//to wrong/envy/oppress/trans-gress

ب غ ي

 (ض،ف)

 

 

 

 

***


 

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