; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 9/12.8 - Form VII. اِفْتِعَالًا if-ti-'aa-lan

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9/12.8 - Form VII. اِفْتِعَالًا if-ti-'aa-lan



Section 12.8 - Form VII. اِفْتِعَالًا if-ti-'aa-lan

 

Form VI is called اِفْتِعَالًا if-ti-'aal-an. Past tense of this form is اِفْتَعَلَ if-ta-'alaand imperfect tense is يَفْتَعِلُ yaf-ta-'i-lu and its source Masdar is اِفْتِعَالًا if-ti-'aa-lan. The benefit of this form is that it also changes the meaning of the Verb from normal action to that of an action with effort/preparation for the purpose of getting something for yourself. For example, كَسَبَ ka-sa-bato اِكْتَسَبَ ik-ta-sa-ba. كَسَبَ ka-sa-ba means to earn / gain / gather / profit / acquire / achieve. When changed to اِكْتَسَبَ ik-ta-sa-ba, it means to acquire / earn (through hardship).

 

The inflections for this are shown in the table below:

 

Table 84 – Form VII Past tense اِفْتَعَلَ if-ta-a-la Inflections

 

 

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

اِفْتَعَلَ

 

If-ta’-

alaa

2

اِفْتَعَلَا

 

If-ta’-alaa

3

اِفْتَعَلُوْا

 

If-ta’-iloo

Female

4

اِفْتَعَلَتْ

 

If-ta’-

‘alat

5

اِفْتَعَلَتَا

 

If-ta’-

altaa

6

اِفْتَعَلْنَ

 

If-ta’-ilna

Present

2nd person

Male

7

اِفْتَعَلْتَ

 

If-ta’-

al-ta

8

اِفْتَعَلْتُمَا

 

If-ta’-al-

tu-maa

9

اِفْتَعَلْتُمْ

 

If-ta’-al-

tum

female

10

اِفْتَعَلْتِ

 

If-ta’-

al-ti

11

اِفْتَعَلْتُمَا

 

If-ta’-al-

tu-maa

12

اِفْتَعَلْتُنَّ

 

If-ta’-al-

tun-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

13

اِفْتَعَلْتُ

 

If-ta’-

al-tu

14

اِفْتَعَلْنَا

 

If-ta’-al-naa

 

Table 85 Form VII Imperfect Tense يَفْتَعِلُ(yaf-ta-ee-lu) Inflections

 

 

Gender

 

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

يَفْتَعِلُ

 

Yaf-ta-

‘i-lu

6

يَفْتَعِلُانِ

 

Yaf-ta-

‘i-laa-ni

10

يَفْتَعِلُوْنَ

 

Yaf-ta-

‘i-loo-na

Female

2

تَفْتَعِلُ

 

Taf-ta-

‘i-lu

7

تَفْتَعِلُانِ

 

Taf-ta-

‘i-laa-ni

11

يَفْتَعِلُنَ

 

Yaf-ta-

‘il-na

Present

2nd person

Male

3

تَفْتَعِلُ

 

Taf-ta-

‘i-lu

8

تَفْتَعِلُانِ

 

Taf-ta-

‘i-laa-ni

12

تَفْتَعِلْوْنَ

 

Taf-ta-

‘i-loo-na

female

14

تَفْتَعِلُينَ

 

Taf-ta-

‘i-lee-na

9

تَفْتَعِلُانِ

 

Taf-ta-

‘i-laa-ni

13

تَفْتَعِلُنَ

 

Taf-ta-

‘il-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

4

اَفْتَعِلُ

 

Af-ta-

‘i-lu

 

5

نَفْتَعِلُ

 

naf-ta-‘ilu

 

 

Table 86 - Form VI اِفْتَعَلَ/ يَفْتَعِلُExamples

 

Qur’anic Example

four alphabet form VI past/imperfect/ Infinitive and Infinitive meaning

three alphabet

Form I past/

imperfect/Infinitive and Infinitive meaning

three alphabet root with

form

An-Nisaa - Verse 1

 

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ

 

O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul

اِتَّقَى/يَتَّقِيْ/اِتِّقَاءً

 

It-ta-qa/yat-taqi/it-ti-qaa-an

 

to beware/be on guard/protect/be afraid of

 

وَقَى/يَقِيْ/وِقَايَةً

 

 

Wa-qa /ya-qee/wi-qaa-ya-tan

 

to guard/ beware/ preserve/ protect/ save

و ق ي

 (ض)

 

Yaseen - Verse 21

 

اتَّبِعُوا مَن لَّا يَسْأَلُكُمْ أَجْرًا وَهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ

 

Follow those who do not ask of you [any] payment, and they are [rightly] guided.

 

اِتَّبَعَ/يَتَّبِعُ/اِتِّبَاعًا

 

It-ta-ba-‘a/yat-ta-bi-‘u/it-ti-baa-‘an

 

to follow (metaphorical-to do as) / obey

 

تَبِعَ/يَتْبَعُ/ تَبَاعَةً

 

Ta-bi-‘a/yat-ba-‘u/ta-baa-‘atan

 

to follow (literally) / succeed

ت ب ع

 (س،ف)

An-Naba - Verse 39

 

ذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمُ الْحَقُّ ۖ فَمَن شَاءَ اتَّخَذَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِ مَآبًا

 

That is the True Day; so, he who wills may take to his Lord a [way of] return.

 

اِتَّخَذَ/يَتَّخِذُ/اِتِّخَاذًا

 

It-ta-kha-dha/yat-ta-khi-dhu/it-ti-qaa-dhan

 

to take firmly/take up/adopt/hold on/assume/adopt/make use of

 

أَخَذَ/يَأَخُذ/ أَخْذًا

 

Akha-dha/yaa-ku-dhu/akh-dhan

 

to take/get hold /seize /grab

ا خ ذ

 (ن)

Al-Kahf - Verse 15

 

فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا

 

And who is more unjust than one who invents about Allah a lie?"

اِفْتَرَىٰ/يَفْترِيْ/اِفْتِرَاءً

 

If-ta-raa/yaf-ta-ree/if-ti-raa-an

 

to fabricate/make up/slander/forge/ invent falsely

 

فَرَىٰ/يَفْرِيْ/ فَرْيًا

 

Fa-ra-yaa/yaf-ree/far-yan

 

to cut lengthwise / fabricate

ف ر ي

 (ض)

Al-Israa - Verse 15

 

مَّنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ

 

Whoever is guided is only guided for [the benefit of] his soul

اِهْتَدَىٰ/يَهْتَدِيْ/اِهْتِدَاءً

 

Ih-ta-daa/yah-ta-dee/ih-ta-daa-an

 

to be guided/find guidance/ committed to guidance

 

هَدَىٰ/يَهْدِيْ/هُدًى، هِدَايَةً

 

Ha-daa/yah-dee/hu-dan, hidaa-ya-tan

 

to guide / show the path / lead

ه د ي

 (ض)

Fussilat - Verse 45

 

وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ فَاخْتُلِفَ فِيهِ

 

And We had already given Moses the Scripture, but it came under disagreement

اِخْتَلَفَ/يَختَلِفُ/ اِخْتِلَافًا

 

Ikh-ta-la-fa/yakh-ta-li-fu/ikh-ti-laa-fan

 

to alternate/differ /be diverse/dispute /quarrel

 

خَلَفَ/يَخْلُفُ/ خَلْفًا، خِلَافَةً

 

Kha-la-fa/yakh-lu-fu/khal-fan, khi-laa-fa-tan

 

to succeed/

come after/

follow/lag behind/

change/ become bad

خ ل ف

 (ن)

Al-Hashr - Verse 20

 

لَا يَسْتَوِي أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ وَأَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ

 

Not equal are the companions of the Fire and the companions of Paradise

 

اِسْتَوَىٰ/يَسْتَوِيْ/اِسْتِوَاءً

 

 

Is-ta-waa/yas-ta-wee/is-te-waa-an

 

to be even/take position/straight/ equal/upright /turn attention to

 

سَوِيْ/يَسْوَى/ سِوًى

 

Sa-wee/yas-waa/si-wan

 

to be equal

س و ي

 (س)

An-Nisaa - Verse 104

 

وَلَا تَهِنُوا فِي ابْتِغَاءِ الْقَوْمِ

 

And do not weaken in pursuit of the enemy

 

اِبْتَغَىٰ/يَبْتَغِيْ/اِبْتِغَاءً

 

 

Ib-ti-gha/yab-ta-ghi/ib-tigha-an

 

to seek/desire/aim at /aspire after/strive for/pursue

 

 

بَغَىٰ/يَبْغِيْ/بَغْيًا

 

 

Ba-ghaa/yab-ghi/bagh-yan

 

to seek/ desire to attain/to wrong/ envy/ oppress/ transgress

ب غ ي

 (ض،ف)

At-Tawba - Verse 111

 

 إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ

 

Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties [in exchange] for that they will have Paradise

اِشْترَىٰ/يَشْترِيْ/اِشْتِرَاءً

 

Ish-ta-raa/yash-ta-ree/ish-ti-raa-an

 

to buy / purchase / barter

 

شَرَىٰ/يَشْرِيْ/ شِرَاءً

 

 

Sha-raa/yash-ree/shi-raa-an

 

to barter / give / sell

ش ر ي

 (ض)

Yunus - Verse 42

 

وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَسْتَمِعُونَ إِلَيْكَ

 

And among them are those who listen to you

اِسْتَمَعَ/يَسْتَمِعُ/ اِسْتِمَاعًا

 

Is-ta-ma-‘a/yas-ta-mi-‘u/is-te-maa-‘an

 

to listen (carefully) / hear/ pay attention

 

سَمِعَ/يَسْمَعُ/ سَمَاعًا، سَمَاعَةً

 

Sa-mi-‘a/yas-ma-‘u/sa-maa-‘an, sa-maa-‘atan

 

to hear / listen

س م ع

 (س)

 

 

 

 

***


 

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