; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 9/12.7 - Form VI. تَفَاعُلًا ta-faa-'ul

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9/12.7 - Form VI. تَفَاعُلًا ta-faa-'ul



Section 12.7 - Form VI. تَفَاعُلًا ta-faa-ul

 

Form V is called تَفَاعُلًا(ta-faa-ul).  Past tense of this form is تَفَاعَلَ (ta-faa-'ala) and imperfect tense is يَتَفَاعَلُ (ya-ta-faa-‘a-lu) and its source (Masdar) is تَفَاعُلًا ta-faa-‘u-lan. The benefit of this form is that it also changes the meaning of the Verb from normal action to that of an action with effort/preparation for the purpose of getting something for yourself. For example, نَصَرَ na-sa-ra to تَنَاصَرَ ta-na-sa-ra. نَصَرَ na-sa-ra means to help. When changed to تَنَاصَرَ ta-na-sa-ra, it means to help each other.

The inflections for this are shown in the table below:

 

Table 81 – Form VI Past tense تَفَاعَلَ (ta-faa-‘ala) Inflections

 

 

 

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

تَفَاعَلَ

 

Ta-faa-

‘ala

2

تَفَاعَلَا

 

Ta-faa-

‘alaa

3

تَفَاعَلُوْا

 

Ta-faa-

‘aloo

Female

4

تَفَاعَلَتْ

 

Ta-faa-

‘al-at

5

تَفَاعَلَتَا

 

Ta-faa-

‘al-taa

6

تَفَاعَلْنَ

 

Ta-faa-

‘al-na

Present

2nd person

Male

7

تَفَاعَلْتَ

 

Ta-faa-

‘al-ta

8

تَفَاعَلْتُمَا

 

Ta-faa-

‘al-tu-ma

9

تَفَاعَلْتُمْ

 

Ta-faa-

Al-tum

female

10

تَفَاعَلْتِ

 

Ta-faa-

‘al-ti

 

11

تَفَاعَلْتُمَا

 

Ta-faa-

‘al-tu-ma

 

12

تَفَاعَلْتُنَّ

 

Ta-faa-

‘al-tun-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

13

تَفَاعَلْتُ

 

Ta-faa-

‘al-tu

14

تَفَاعَلْنَا

 

Ta-faa-‘al-naa

 

Table 82 - Form VI Imperfect Tense يَتَفَاعَلُ(yata-faa-alu) Inflections

 

 

Gender

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

يَتَفَاعَلُ

 

Ya-ta-

Faa-‘alu

6

يَتَفَاعَلَانِ

 

Ya-ta-fa’-

alaa-ni

10

يَتَفَاعَلُوْنَ

 

Ya-ta-fa’-

aloo-na

Female

2

تَتَفَاعَلُ

 

Ta-taa-

fa-‘alu

7

تَتَفَاعَلَانِ

 

ta-ta-faa-

‘alaa-ni

11

يَتَفَاعَلْنَ

 

Ta-ta-faa-

‘al-na

Present

2nd person

Male

3

تَتَفَاعَلُ

 

Ta-taa-

fa-‘alu

 

8

تَتَفَاعَلَانِ

 

ta-ta-faa-

‘alaa-ni

12

تَتَفَاعّلُوْنَ

 

Ta-ta-faa-

‘aloo-na

female

14

تَتَفَاعَلِينَ

 

Ta-ta-fa’-

alee-na

9

تَتَفَاعَلَانِ

 

ta-ta-fa’

alaa-ni

13

تَتَفَاعَلْنَ

 

Ta-ta-fa’-

al-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

4

اَتَفَاعَلُ

 

ataa-

fa’-alu

 

5

نَتَفَاعَلُ

 

na-taa-

fa’-alu

 

Table 83 - Form VI تَفَاعَلَ/ يَتَفَاعَلُ/تَفَاعُلًا Examples

 

Qur’anic Example

Four alphabet form III past/ imperfect/ Infinitive and Infinitive meaning

Three alphabet

Form I past/ imperfect/ Infinitive and Infinitive meaning

Three alphabet root with

form

Al-Mulk - Verse 1

 

تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ الْمُلْكُ

 

Blessed is He in whose hand is dominion

تَبَارَكَ/يَتَبَارَكُ/تَبَارُكًا

 

Ta-baa-ra-ka/ya-ta-baa-ra-ku/ta-baa-ra-kan

 

to be blessed

بَرَكَ/يَبْرُكُ/بُرُوْكًا

 

Ba-ra-ka/yab-ru-ku/buroo-kan

 

To lie down/rest

ب ر ك

 (ن)

An-Naba - Verse 1

عَمَّ يَتَسَاءَلُونَ

About what are they asking one another?

 

تَسَآءَلَ/يَتَساءَلُ /تَسَاءُلًا

 

Ta-saa-ala/ya-ta-saa-alu/ta-saa-u-lan

 

to question/ ask/ inquire one another

سأَلَ/يَسَاءَلُ/سَاءَلًا

 

Sa-ala/ya-saa-ala/saa-a-lan

 

To ask, to enquire

س ء ل

 (ف)

Taa-Haa - Verse 62

 

فَتَنَازَعُوا أَمْرَهُم بَيْنَهُمْ

 

So, they disputed over their affair among themselves

تَنَازَعَ/ يَتَنَازَعُ/تَنَازُعًا

 

Ta-naa-za-‘a/ya-ta-naa-za-‘u/ta-naa-za-‘an

 

to dispute, to disagree

نَزَعَ/ يَنْزِعُ/نَازِعًا

Na-za-‘a/yan-zi-‘u/naa-zi-‘an

 

He took out/pulled out/removed/

extracted

ن ز ع

 (ف/ض)

At-Takaathur - Verse 1

 

أَلْهَاكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ

 

Competition in [worldly] increase diverts you

 

تَكَاثَرَ/يَتَكَاثَرُ/تَكَاثُرًا

 

Ta-kaa-tha-ra/ya-ta/kaa-tha-ru/tha-ka-thu-ran

 

To want, to compete for more

كَثُر/يَكْثُرُ/كَثْرَةً

 

Ka-thu-ra/yak-thu-ru/kath-ra-tan

 

He asked for much

ك ث ر

 (ك)

 

As-Saaffaat - Verse 25

مَا لَكُمْ لَا تَنَاصَرُونَ

[They will be asked], "What is [wrong] with you? Why do you not help each other?"

 

تَنَاصَرَ/يَتَنَاصُرُ/ تَنَاصُرًا

 

Ta-naa-sa-ra/ya-ta-naa-su-ru/ta-naa-su-ran

 

To support each other

نَصَرَ/يَنْصُرُ/نَصْرًا

 

Na-sa-ra/yan-su-ru/nas-ran

 

To help

ن ص ر

 (ن)

Al-Mutaffifin - Verse 30

وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِهِمْ يَتَغَامَزُونَ

And when they passed by them, they would exchange derisive glances

 

تَغَامَزَ/ يَتَغَامِزُ/تَغَامُزًا

 

Ta-ghaa-ma-za/ya-ta-ghaa-mi-zu/ta-ghaa-mu-zan

 

To exchange signals with eyes

 (innuendo)

 

غَمَزَ/يَغمِزُ/غَمْزًا

 

Gha-ma-za/yagh-mi-zu/gham-zan

 

To signal, wink

 

غ م ز

 (ض)

Al-An'aam - Verse 100

 

سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ

Exalted is He and high above what they describe

تَعَالٰى/يَتَعَائِلُ/تَعَالًا

 

Ta’ala/ya-ta-’aa-ilu/ta’aa-lan

 

To be highly placed, exalted, sublime

عَلَا/يَعِلُوْ/عُلُوًا

 

‘Alaa/ya-‘i-lu/’u-lu-wan

 

To overcome, to be high

ع ل و

 (ض)

Al-Asr - Verse 3

 

تَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

 

 (they) advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience

 

تَوَاصَىَ/يَتَوَاصَيَ/ تَواصُيًا

 

Ta-waa-sa-ya/ya-ta-waa-sa-ya/ta-wa-su-yan

 

To enjoin one another/mutually counsel

وَصَىَ/يَصِيْ/وَصْيًا

 

Wa-sa-ya/ya-si/wa-si-yan

 

To reach/be joined

 

و ص ى

 (ض)

--

Not used in Qur’an

تَدَارَسَ/يَتَدَارَسُ/ تَدارُسًا

 

Ta-daa-ra-sa/ya-ta-da-ra-su/ta-da-ru-san

 

He studied together (with)

دَرَسَ/يَدْرُسُ/دَرْسًا

 

Da-ra-sa/yad-ru-su/dar-san

 

He studied

د ر س

 (ن)

--

Not used in Qur’an

تَحَابَّ/يِتَحَابُّ/تَحَابَةً

 

Ta-haab-ba/ya-ta-haab-bu/ta-hab-ba-tan

 

 

To love each other

حَبَّ/يَحِبُّ/حُبًّ،مُحَبَّةً

 

Hab-ba/yu-hib-bu/mu-hab-ba-tan

 

To love

ح ب ب

 (ض)

 

 

 

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